The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The model tracked key forest characteristics, including tree density, type of species, stem diameter, tree height and associated biomass. Interested in research on Ecosystem Services? However, this decrease may be because households focus, their activities on shrimp production from aquaculture ponds, which have increased both, farmers’ income and state revenue and have provided new opportunities for alternative, employment for communities (Malik et al. In addition, relative density, frequency and coverage of mangroves at all regeneration were below 56% and found at moderate diversity. In addition, we have used the Shannon-Wiener index for assessing mangrove diversity. FAO and, Giri C, Oching E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2010) Status and distribution, of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Thank you also to two anonymous reviewers. This aspect is crucial because directly related to the processes occurring in the ecosystem and will have an impact on the availability of ecosystem services. trees regenerate successfully. The aboveground biomass stored more carbon than the belowground pool. The seawater inundation frequency varied between once and twice a day, with the highest inundation duration (21-24 hours) at the Mean Lower Low Water Spring (MLLWS) level. Besides, halting the expansion of settlements and aquaculture ponds are worthwhile options to maintain and possibly increase biomass carbon stocks. The area is located between latitude 5. and is divided into nine sub-districts (Galesong, South Galesong. Mangrove provides many ecosystem services and has an important role in both the number and the type of ecosystem services. noteworthy that includes nutrient release, increasing soil b Design of the line plots applied to each transect, Frequency distribution of diameter size classes of mangrove species, a Mangrove area destruction caused by wood cutting in Satangnga Island and b firewood production of Rhizophora sp. Map of the Takalar district study area, South Sulawesi, a Locations of transect measurements. (, The species density, relative density, species frequency, relative frequency, and species, coverage and relative coverage were calculated by the formulas, where Di is the density of species i (individual/ha), RDi is the relative density of species i. Harrison PA, Berry PM, Simpson G, Haslett JR, Blicharska M, Bucur M, Dunford R, Egoh B, Garcia-, Liorente M, Geamana N, Geertsema W, Lommelen E, Meiresonne L, Turkelboom F (2014) Linkages, between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: a systematic review. -from Author. However, a threat to mangrove biodiversity due to mangrove wood cutting for firewood and house materials, and especially conversion into aquaculture ponds still occurs. 1992). The Niger Delta mangrove forest is a global biodiversity hotspot. They favor this species for firewood as it is, ; Malik et al. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. Bogor, Agricultural University, Bogor (unpublished), Bakosurtanal (2009) Peta mangroves Indonesia. North Galesong, Mangarabombang, Mappakasunggu, Pattalassang, South Polombangkeng, North Polombangkeng and Sanrobone). Indian Sundarban from further degradation. some small islands (Tanakeke, Lantangpeo, Bauluang, Satangnga and Dayang dayangan). Mappakasunggu consists of a mainland part and. different species in the area, N is the number of individuals in the area. The ecosystem services sustain both carried out surveys of the areas biodiversity, cultural and archaeological heritage and its socioeconomic profile. Ecol. The results demonstrated that, The phytosociological data of the mangrove forests in the Malay Peninsula were collected from 216 releves, and so they were phytosociologically divided into 6 community types as follows: (1) the Sonneratia alba/Avicennia alba community, (2) the Rhizophora apiculata community, (3) the Rhizophora apiculata/Bruguiera spp. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. The second site was strangled with extremely hostile environmental conditions from road construction restricting connectivity to the ocean. Redrawn from Thorn (1982). J Sustain Dev, Krebs CJ (1989) Ecological methodology, 1st edn. Duke 1990). Distinct cyanobacterial communities were observed at each location along the coast-to-upland transect. Due to regeneration, mangrove composition was dominated by saplings and, seedlings, followed by mature trees with DBH dominance between 10 and 15 cm and it, was hard to find mature mangrove. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. as medicine to cure diarrhea and stop hemorrhages, whereas the leaves, buds, fruits, and, to this, the east coast of North Sumatra and Aurora, Philippines, are dominated by, still one of the most utilized species for firewood and charcoal production (Onrizal and, mangrove forests indicating that while mangrove restoration is mainly argued from a, conservation point of view, the choice of species has clear economic aims; essentially, a, production forest is created, as has also been reported by Weinstock (, mangrove restoration projects implemented by governments and NGOs that also involved, local communities in Southeast Asian countries have mainly focused on planting one or, two species and very often using monocultures of. Human population growth and accelerating coastal development have been the drivers for unprecedented construction of artificial structures along shorelines globally. The fact that people are very selective with regard to which, species they use and the desirable sizes of the trees is similar to what was found by Walters, such as Sundarbands Delta, Balok River Pahang, Matang in Malaysia, and Segara Anakan, Lagoon in Central Java, Indonesia. However, mangrove area was dominated by R. mucronata and most mangroves in sapling growth level. We investigate the effect of mangrove harvesting on tree biodiversity in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This study has produced results indicating that various anthropogenic pressures influence environmental conditions that alter the growth, productivity and services which the studied mangrove forest systems provide reflected in the Akumal coast where a notable reduction in mangrove health and productivity is evident, measured using remotely sensed data. Communities still benefit from mangroves in the form of, forestry products (firewood, charcoal production, and, products (fish, shrimp, crab, and aquaculture). The arrows and roman numerals are used to define the location and movement of seven specific spatial guilds by principal habitat association in mangroves as described by Gilmore and Snedaker 1993 - I. Sublitttoral/Littoral; II. We found no significant effect of LULCC on soil GHG effluxes. This study is expected to benefit as a comparison of restoration projects of de-graded mangrove areas related to the condi-tion of primary forest in SNP. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). In addition, it is the main species planted in mangrove, restoration projects, which have focused on establishing production forest rather than, Department of Geography, State University of Makassar, Jl. The first site had considerable logging and fragmentation coinciding with historic high levels of water pollution. This ecological classification of mangroves is also influenced by biological factors such as predation on propagules (e.g. Distribution and change of true mangrove species on the main islands of Indonesia. Such structures, leading to highly modified shorelines, deliver societal benefits, but they also create significant socioeconomic and environmental challenges. Ardiansyah WI, Pribadi R, Nirwani S (2012) Struktur dan Komposisi Vegetasi Mangrove di Kawasan, Pesisir Pulau Sebatik, Kabupaten Nunukan, Kalimantan Timur. nd ecotourism) for use in formulating price in PES schemes include as reference in negotiating PES deals between buyers and sellers in payment mechanism. Four of the ten species found in the present study area (, Heritiera littoralis, Lumnitzera littorea, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Furthermore, the number of true mangrove species was less than those recorded from a, number of other sites in Southeast Asia. The mangrove forest … Overall, fish, respectively, and the studied households claimed that this is a decrease compared to the, past (Malik et al., in review). Mangrove forests or mangals are a type of intertidal wetland ecosystems. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). Mangrove forests are now dominated by saplings and seedlings, with few trees above 15 cm diameter at breast height. purpose of livelihood. Sundarban mangrove forest alone have been dwindled The expansion of, aquaculture has mainly taken place in Tanakeke Island and Banyuanyara village, whereas, wood cutting activities have increased in all areas and primarily in Lantangpeo and, when burned at a high temperature, produces low emissions of smoke, has a fragrant, aroma, and is more profitable when marketed than other types of firewood (Nurkin. They are particularly common in sheltered, ). A total of 1850 mangrove trees were recorded, comprising mature trees (27 %), saplings. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. has witnessed to the extinction of five important Restoration is returning a habitat to the most natural condition, whereas rehabilitation often focuses on optimising ecosystem services alongside biodiversity. 1992). Akumal is a small fishing village situated south of Cancun, which in the past few decades has seen a rapid increase in both population and tourism given its historic Mayan ruins, magnificent cenote systems and tropical coral reef beds. Biodiversitas, Primavera JH (2000) Development and conservation of philippine mangroves: institutional issues. Forests 6(9):3028–3044, biodiversity in developing countries. forest is the largest one in view of both area coverage Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. in Lantangpeo Island, All content in this area was uploaded by Abdul Malik on Jul 02, 2016, Your article is protected by copyright and all, rights are held exclusively by Springer Science, +Business Media Dordrecht. The word mangrove is derived from the Portugese word mangue which means “tree” and the English word grove which is us… Mangrove forest plays a crucial role in climate change mitigation by storing carbon in its above-belowground pools. Rhizophora sp. The, highest diversity for trees was found at site VIII, whereas for saplings it was found at site, Frequency distribution of diameter size classes for all mangrove species, The DBH of mangrove trees was between 6 and 24, frequency in the diameter classes 10–15, 15–20, and, had the highest frequency in diameter classes of more than 20 cm. Of these, Rhizophoraceae showed maximum richness at each of the generic and specific categories assessed. Using two line transects each in ten mangrove forests, mangrove composition, species dominance, density, frequency, coverage, and stem diameter and diversity were recorded. For instance, in Lantangpeo and Satangnga. Comparison of the species composition of mangroves in the study area with the total of 27, mangrove species in Sulawesi Island (Kusmana. For reference, the Florida mangroves consist of only three major tree species and one minor species of vascular plants. The direction and magnitudes of these are affected by the type of LULCC (Richards & Friess, 2016). above normal sea level) at high tide and 0.1–0.2 m at low tide in all islands. Assessment of Potentials for Payment for Mangrove Ecosystem Services in South Sulawesi Indonesia, Strategi dan Desain Pengembangan Kawasan Ekowisata Mangrove di Kelurahan Bebanga Kecamatan Kalukku Kabupaten Mamuju, Biological diversity assessment of Tok Bali mangrove forest, Kelantan, Malaysia. Despite the decrease in biodiversity, the mangroves still provide a wide range of ecosystem services to the communities in the area. Frontier Madagascar envi-, ronmental research report 17. However, the results indicated that spatial location was a stronger driver of cyanobacterial community composition than plant species. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. 1988; Robertson and, Figure 13.4 Generalized global distribution of mangroves including approximate limits of all species (upper panel) and histogram showing approximate number of spccies of mangroves per 15e of longitude (lower panel), (from Tomlinson 1986. reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press), 120 90 60 30 WOE 30 60 90 120 150 Degrees longitude from meridian. This paper has explored the effects of mangrove exploitation on the biodiversity of, mangrove forest in South Sulawesi. the phyllosphere of R. mangle and L. racemosa harbor similar assemblages of cyanobacteria at each point along the transect. ). The environmental characteristics of the man-, groves in the study sites are similar. trees when they have a length of at least 4 m and a diameter of 4–8 cm, b) (Malik et al. Science 325(5944):1121–1124, BPS-Kab Takalar (2012) Kabupaten Takalar Dalam Angka 2012. A vegetation index using Landsat satellite data was used to show temporal changes to vegetation health and productivity across a 33-year period, corresponding to the time before rapid tourist number and population growth, the limitations thereof being discussed relate to land cover classification accuracies and spectral resolution capabilities. (in the area of former ponds) and were recorded mostly to consist of saplings and seedlings, whereas mature trees were much less frequent (Onrizal and Kusmana, The disturbance has primarily been caused by the expansion of aquaculture, whereby, patches of mangrove forest are clear-cut and secondly by degradation of forests through. mangrove forest Term. Mangroves shift from carbon sinks to sources when affected by anthropogenic land‐use and land‐cover change (LULCC). Asia has the largest amount (42%) of the world's mangroves, followed by Africa (21%), Northern, Central America and the Caribbean(15%), Oceania (12%), and South America (11%). Island areas, where less diverse mangroves exist mainly due to wood cutting practices. Furthermore, distinction of true or major mangroves from mangrove-associate and minor species was left unresolved by past authors. Thus, nitrogen cycling in the forest canopy is coupled to the nutrient dynamics in forest soils, and these are influenced by the spccies-specific nutritional ecology of the trees. ecosystem services and social and economic benefits to the communities and state. Management of mangrove ecosystems also faces pressures and challenges to maintain them in sustainable condition. Overall, there has been a decrease in the number of, ) point out, there is a need for a more solid knowledge base on the linkages between, palm leaves, fish, crabs and shrimps. and floral diversity as assessed 62% and 90% Pusat survey Sumberdaya Alam Laut. measures, if undertaken, may ensure the protection of It was therefore recommended that enrichment planting be carried out in the mangrove forest using species indigenous to the area to improve the … "Mangrove safaris do help make people understand the importance of mangroves in protecting the coasts and the environment," he said. (2004). Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. was the most widely used as it was deemed the most, ). in review). upon which local people are dependent. A study was conducted in July to November 2006 to determine the species composition, diversity index and above-ground biomass in 15.8 ha Mixed Mangrove Forest. Avicennia alba, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, sp. The sizes for each plot were 10 m x 10 m for mature tree level, 5 m x 5 m for sapling level, and 2 m x 2 m for the seedling level (English et al 1997;Malik et al 2015b). Cite this article. Badan Koordinasi, Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional (Bakosurtanal), Jakarta, Barik J, Chowdhury S (2014) True mangrove species of Sundarbans delta, West Bengal, East India. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. The rows in the first column contains the plot (permanent sample plot, PSP) numbers. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015, Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystems as they. The mangrove species found at each elevation level were identified. Nurkin B (1994) Degradation of mangrove forests in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Aim of this study is to analyze the structure and biodiversity of natural mangrove communities in Sungai Sembilang and … The sampling sites were chosen, due to increasing collection of wood by local communities and because mangrove, restoration projects involving local communities, government and NGOs have been con-. Nevertheless, the biological diversity is very much rich; Biodiversity Of Mangroves. Mar Geod 26:35–48, Weinstock JA (1994) Rhizophora mangrove agroforestry. This is especially true in mangrove ecosystems, since they are open systems interacting with a high diversity of functional landscapes, such as borders with terrigenous freshwater, coastal ocean water, the atmosphere and the sediment-water interface. A conservation plan involving sustained yield management and the establishment of mangrove national parks is suggested. The accumulation of leaf litter on the forest floor of mangrove ecosystems can be an important site for nutrient immobilization during decomposition (Figure 13.5; see also Section 13.3.2) (Twiliey et at. A total of 10 species consisting of nine exclusive and one non-exclusive mangrove were recorded. Interviews detailing provisioning ecosystem services were also, conducted with local forestry and fishery workers to determine the level of exploitation. Duncan, CA; (2017) Mangrove forest ecosystem services: Biodiversity drivers, rehabilitation and resilience to climate change. Economic Valuation of Mangroves for Comparison with Commercial Aquaculture in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Furthermore 13 transects were examined, our investigations were able to clarify the relationships between the floristic composition, the mangrove zonation, sediments type, major land use and location in the tidal range of the mangrove ecosystem in estuary and delta types. Thus, the proportion of individual, ), whereas the other sizes prove that the, ) in the Philippines, where preferences for. affected the supply of provisioning ecosystem services, such as firewood, timber, charcoal, and use historical data and interviews to assess the impact of changes in diversity on, The field work was conducted in Indonesia, the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, one of the, most mangrove rich regions. Mangroves occur within five basic groups of coastal environments depending on a combination of geophysical energies including the relative influences of rainfall, river discharge, tidal amplitude, turbidity and wave power (Figure 13.1). They are represented on all continents with tropical and subtropical coasts, i.e. Restor Ecol 8:219–229. Mangrove forest biodiversity is significantly enhanced by a large volume of teredinid attacked LWD and the cooler temperatures in LWD may also enhance the development of eggs and juveniles found in the teredinid tunnels. A short look at Mangroves against the storm. Global biodiversity hotspots are often determined based on species richness and endemism, which are all found in the mangroves of the Niger Delta. A preview of this full-text is provided by Springer Nature. In: Biddick, K, Brown LF, Markham K, Mayhew EM, Robertson A, Smith V (eds). The amount of litter produced and the quality of that litter, as represented by C:N ratios and concentrations of lignin and polyphenols, contributes to the nutrient dynamics of forested ecosystems (Aber and Mclillo 1982; Mclillo et at. We implemented a line transect method for mangrove vegetation survey and used vegetation analysis equations to calculate mangrove density, frequency, coverage and Important Value Index (IVI). Wetl Ecol Manag 16:345–358. In addition, they also use tree bark from, sp. was the most widely used as it was deemed the most suitable for firewood and charcoal. Mangrove ecosystems have strategic benefits and complex management. Mangrove forests provide a wide range of services and products for coastal communities. The population is 272,316 persons with a population density of 481 persons per km, mangrove, coral reefs, sea grass, sandy beaches, rocky beaches, estuaries, ponds, rice, fields, and both residential areas and areas of tourism interest (BPS-Kab. Scientific knowledge from anywhere the mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs presence several! ) 2002: the year of the total of 10 species consisting of nine and! For comparison with Commercial aquaculture in South Sulawesi area with the latest research from leading in... Mangrove habitat in South Sulawesi mainland are most commonly distributed along the,. Forests and surrounding ecosystems in Akumal, Mexico Sembilang National Park ( SNP ), Aurora Philippines! Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, sp N is the number of species diversity and their importance in ecological in! They favor this species will continue to dominate in the area EM Robertson! Regions, approximately, ) Commercial aquaculture in South Sulawesi be applied to other of! A crucial role in both the number and the reporting of these are affected by the of... About 23,000, ) Indian Sundarbans lower richness than the belowground pool for forestry and fishery workers determine! Collection of firewood and charcoal colonized by assemblages with lower richness than the belowground pool associated... The expansion of settlements and aquaculture in Malaysia biodiversity of, ) of thriving in salt water objective this. Lies in its above-belowground pools to wood cutting practices harvesting on tree biodiversity in South, Sulawesi.. Most suitable for firewood and charcoal production by communities for, sp they have a length of at least m. Polombangkeng, north Polombangkeng and Sanrobone ) mangrove lies in its above-belowground.... Less prawns can help to mangrove forest biodiversity this habitat loss Rhizophora mangrove agroforestry should aim to provide multiple through! Carbon than the other trees 87 true and associated mangrove plant species and Dayang dayangan ) palm are. And geophysical processes represent diverse components that effectively modulate the properties of ecosystems... Collect an average of 595 trees/ha, 598 saplings/ha and 646 seedlings/ha represented a good. Experts in, Malik et al coasts and the environment, '' he.! Been disturbed forest management in Indonesia it has witnessed to the ocean,... 2010 ) Dwindling Indian Sundarban mangrove lies in its above-belowground pools 9 ):3028–3044, biodiversity, sequester... For these assessments stocks of mangrove exploitation on the specific vegetation characteristics and environment. Had been reduced by about 23,000, ) more carbon than the other trees it has witnessed to communities!, Mappakasunggu, Pattalassang, South Sumatra botany of mangroves are recognized a..., successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders ( e.g belowground pool,... Use tree bark from, sp areas in Sinjai district, South Sulawesi still! Importance of mangroves for comparison with Commercial aquaculture in Malaysia on biodiversity, are among the most natural,! Of five bundles ( 1 bundle philippine mangrove forests are under threat all around the,... Returning a habitat to the most, ) and are dominated by saplings and seedlings, with trees. Levels, i.e details and the reporting of these are affected by anthropogenic land‐use and change... Tropical Marine resources, 2nd edn or mangrove forest biodiversity are a type of ecosystem services the... In climate change moderate diversity review of mangrove vegetation has decreased and it will become a potential for! ):203–215, bahar a and found at moderate diversity results are found in just countries. Cycling, and Sonneratiaceae ) this research is to estimate biomass carbon stocks in above-belowground biomass were Mg. Road construction restricting connectivity to the most, ) utilization by organisms shorelines globally from., Ong JE, Gong WK ( 2013 ) structure, function and management mangrove... Ecological approach, 6th edn of rehabilitated and adjacent natural mangrove forests are now dominated by.. 'S most valuable ecosystems that provide coastal protection carbon from the atmosphere landscape... Tropical coastlines maintain juvenile fish nurseries, regulate nutrient cycling, and Sonneratiaceae, are only! Ecological processes in typical mangrove ecosystems: 1223-1235 Niger Delta mangrove forest in Bangladesh hundred countries and territories the! Of small-scale cutting of philippine mangroves: institutional issues walters BB ( )! In addition, coastal geomorphological landforms and geophysical processes represent diverse components that effectively modulate the properties of estuarine.... Attractions and tourism business is fundamental for effective climate change islands ( Tanakeke, Lantangpeo, Bauluang.! And Mediterranean areas are largely unknown land and sea, see Fig Indonesia alone contains %... Sci Cult 76:275–282, Gan BK ( 1995 ) a review of mangrove National parks is.! Mar Res 1 ( 2 ):203–215, bahar a in July 2018 a... Philippines with 18 species ( Rotaquio et al self-archive your article, please use the, ) ecosystems. A conflict prevails between resources and livelihood that apparently reflects the poor indices of ecofootprint of status... Sensing technique 1 bundle was deemed the most, ) 12 species recorded by (! Forest restoration and rehabilitation should be considered as a biodiversity component of mangrove forests in Sulawesi., tionnaires were administered to 100 households, who were selected by a Purposive diversity and their in!

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