Two-thirds of it are no deeper than 200 m. [82] Most of the eastern coast is characterised by a karst topography, developed from the Adriatic Carbonate Platform's exposure to weathering. [231] Montenegro declared itself independent in 2006, effectively land-locking Serbia. It extends from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest where it ends at the Veneto region in Italy. The boundary agreed in 1968 extends 353 nautical miles (654 km; 406 mi) and consists of 43 points connected by straight lines or circular arc segments. [75] In the Middle Adriatic Basin, there is evidence of Permian volcanism in the area of Komiža on the island of Vis and the volcanic islands of Jabuka and Brusnik. The western coast is Italian, while the eastern coast runs mostly along Croatia, but lesser parts belong to Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Albania. Adriatic Sea, Italian Mare Adriatico, Bosnian, Croatian, and Montenegrin Jadransko More, Albanian Deti i Adriatikut, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between the Italian and Balkan peninsulas. [204] The campaign reached its climax in the 1811 Battle of Lissa,[citation needed] and ended with British and Austrian troops seizing the coastal cities on the eastern Adriatic coast from the French. [292] In January 2012, INA commenced prospecting for oil off Dubrovnik, marking the resumption of oil exploration along the eastern Adriatic coast after surveys commenced in the late 1980s around the island of Brač were cancelled because of Yugoslavia's breakup and war in Croatia. [112] In addition, Albania is home to two Ramsar wetland reserves: Karavasta Lagoon, and Butrint. [9][28], Exclusive economic zones in Adriatic Sea :[29], The Adriatic Sea's average depth is 259.5 metres (851 ft), and its maximum depth is 1,233 metres (4,045 ft); however, the North Adriatic basin rarely exceeds a depth of 100 metres (330 ft). It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres (4,045 ft). This arrangement was made permanent in the 1975 Treaty of Osimo. [123] The Bay of Mali Ston is located at the border of Croatia and Bosnia–Herzegovina, north of the Pelješac peninsula. The sirocco brings humid and warm air, often carrying Saharan sand causing rain dust.[57]. [261][262] The direct contribution of travel and tourism to Croatia's GDP stood at 5.1% in 2011, with the total industry contribution estimated at 12.8% of the national GDP. [172] When the Western Empire fell in 476 AD Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. The treaty reversed all wartime annexations, guaranteed the independence of Albania, created the Free Territory of Trieste (FTT) as a city-state, and gave communist Yugoslavia most of the Slovenian Littoral, as well as Istria, the islands of Cres, Lastovo and Palagruža, and the cities of Zadar and Rijeka. [226] After the fall of communism, Yugoslavia broke apart: Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in 1991,[227] and Bosnia–Herzegovina followed in 1992,[228] while Montenegro remained in a federation with Serbia, officially called Serbia and Montenegro. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest and the Po Valley. [194] These defeats spelled the end of an independent Hungarian kingdom, and both Croatian and Hungarian nobility chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as their new ruler, bringing the Habsburg Monarchy to the shore of the Adriatic Sea, where it would remain for nearly four hundred years. [69] [50], The predominant winter winds are the bora and sirocco (called jugo along the eastern coast). Korcula Town, Korcula Island. [33] The coastal currents on the opposite shore are far more complex owing to the jagged shoreline, several large islands and the proximity of the Dinaric Alps to the shore. [159], Roman economic and military influence in the region began to grow with the creation by 246 BC of a major naval base at Brundisium (now Brindisi), which was established to bar Carthaginian ships from the Adriatic during the Punic Wars. [171] During the 4th century AD the emperors of the Western Roman Empire had moved their official residence north from Rome to Mediolanum (now Milan) in order to be better able to control the military frontier with the Germanic tribes. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast. The Adriatic Sea is situated largely between the eastern coast of Italy and Croatia. [117] Furthermore, there are 10 internationally important (Ramsar) wetland reserves in Italy located along the Adriatic coast. [155], Settlements along the Adriatic dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern coast, related to the Cardium pottery culture. The Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area, ultimately securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. 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